Arduino Boards | Specification | Configuration | Types


Arduino is an open-supply natural philosophy platform all totally on easy-to-use hardware and software. Arduino forums are capable of examine inputs – gentle on a sensor, a finger on a button, or a Twitter message – and flip it into an output – activating a motor, turning on an LED.
Business some issue you’ll be able to inform your board what to try to to with the help of exploitation causation a hard and fast of commands to the microcontroller at the board.
To try to so that you employ the Arduino artificial language (primarily based totally on Wiring), and also the Arduino package (IDE), all totally on Over the years Arduino has been the mind of variant projects, from regular gadgets to sophisticated medical instruments.
An international network of manufacturers – students, hobbyists, artists, programmers, ANd professionals – has accumulated spherical this open-supply platform, their contributions have introduced the maximum amount as a splendid amount of there ability that will be of super assist to beginners and professionals

How to use Arduino Board

The 14 digital input/output pins can be used as input or output pins by using pinMode(), digitalRead() and digitalWrite() functions in Arduino programming. Each pin operates at 5V and can provide or receive a maximum of 40mA current, and has an internal pull-up resistor of 20-50 KOhms which are disconnected by default.  Out of these 14 pins, some pins have specific functions as listed below:

  • Serial Pins 0 (Rx) and 1 (Tx): Rx and Tx pins are used to receive and transmit TTL serial data. They are connected with the corresponding ATmega328P USB to TTL serial chip.
  • External Interrupt Pins 2 and 3: These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value.
  • PWM Pins 3, 5, 6, 9, and 11: These pins provide an 8-bit PWM output by using the analogWrite() function.
  • SPI Pins 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), and 13 (SCK): These pins are used for SPI communication.
  • In-built LED Pin 13: This pin is connected with a built-in LED, when pin 13 is HIGH – the LED is on, and when pin 13 is LOW, it’s off.

Along with 14 Digital pins, there are 6 analog input pins, each of which provides 10 bits of resolution, i.e. 1024 different values. They measure from 0 to 5 volts but this limit can be increased by using the AREF pin with analog Reference() function.  

  • Analog pin 4 (SDA) and pin 5 (SCA) also used for TWI communication using Wire library. Arduino Uno has a couple of other pins as explained below:
  • AREF: Used to provide reference voltage for analog inputs with analogReference() function.
  • Reset Pin: Making this pin LOW, resets the microcontroller.


Arduino can be used to communicate with a computer, another Arduino board, or other microcontrollers. The ATmega328P microcontroller provides UART TTL (5V) serial communication which can be done using digital pin 0 (Rx) and digital pin 1 (Tx). 
An ATmega16U2 on the board channels this serial communication over USB and appears as a virtual com port to software on the computer. The ATmega16U2 firmware uses the standard USB COM drivers, and no external driver is needed. However, on Windows, a .inf file is required. 
The Arduino software includes a serial monitor which allows simple textual data to be sent to and from the Arduino board. There are two RX and TX LEDs on the Arduino board which will flash when data is being transmitted via the USB-to-serial chip and USB connection to the computer (not for serial communication on pins 0 and 1). 
A SoftwareSerial library allows for serial communication on any of the Uno’s digital pins. The ATmega328P also supports I2C (TWI) and SPI communication. The Arduino software includes a Wire library to simplify the use of the I2C bus.


  • Prototyping of Electronics Products and Systems
  • Multiple DIY Projects.
  • Easy to use for beginner level DIYers and makers.
  • Projects requiring Multiple I/O interfaces and communications.


  1. Arduino Uno(R3)
  2. Arduino Mega (R3)
  3. Arduino Nano
  4. Arduino Leonardo
  5. Arduino Due
  6. LilyPad Arduino
  7. Arduino Micro
  8. Arduino Pro Mini. 

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